It can act at both local and regional scales depending on the scale of the nutrient sources. At regional scales this often requires international cooperation to reduce terrestrial nutrient inputs.
The consequences of managing nutrients inputs may take years before the effects are fully felt. The impact of eutrophication is generally a function of the hydrodynamic and light climates of the region in question; for example strongly stratified or layerd regions are more often prone to low oxygen environments while, highly turbid environments may mitigate the effects because there is not enough light for the plankton to grow.
In the future the impacts of eutrophication may be enhanced or mitigated by the effects of climate change, the effects varying from place to place and will need to be considered when developing future management strategies.
Fact sheet describing how MEECE science can support the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor on Eutrophication